Displaying items by tag: primates

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For International Primate Day on September 1st 2017, Animal Defenders International is calling for action to end the use of primates in research. Worldwide an estimated 200,000 primates are experimented on each year, with over 70,000 animals used in research across the US,one of the world’s largest users of primates.

Animal Defenders International President Jan Creamer said: The continued use of primates in research is unethical and unnecessary. Harmful to both our closest relatives and to science, governments must end primate tests and facilitate the adoption of modern alternatives without delay.”

Some primates are forcibly removed from the wild and used as breeding machines to supply the industry, or used themselves in tests. In addition to the trauma causedto individuals during the capture process, subsequent confinement, and during procedures until their deaths, this brutal practice harms local populations threatening their survival. 

In Latin America, ADI has exposed the capture of owl monkeys for use in malaria experiments in Colombia. Taken from the trees, these nocturnal primates go from the forest to a barren cage. Our evidence led to a tribunal revoking the experimenter’s permits;although this groundbreaking decision has been overturned. Elsewhere, in Africa and Asia, ADI has revealed dire conditions inside the monkey breeders, who take primates from the wild to maintain their breeding stocks. At the monkey farms, individuals are confined to cages and routinely manhandled. In Florida, already home to a number of monkey breeders, ADI is opposing plans for a facility which seeks to import thousands of primates from outside the US.

Primates are frequently used in brain experiments because of their apparent similarity to humans. However, despite being our closest relatives, non-human primates differ from us in a number of ways, including the immune system. Their use in research therefore can never reliably predict potential human effects. Aspirin for example causes birth defects in monkeys, but is widely used by pregnant women without the same effect.

Such species differences are the fundamental flaw of using animals in research.Each species responds differently to substances, with an animal’s age, diet, sex, even bedding material, also affecting results. As a result animal tests can delay scientific progress and lead to human tragedy.

Just days after being given trial drug BIA 10-2474, the six male volunteers in the highest dose group were hospitalized. Four volunteers displayed neurological symptoms, with at least one losing all his fingers and toes; one of the six volunteers died a week after receiving the dose.  No comparable effect had been seen in monkeys or other animals given high doses of the drug over long periods. Some monkeys were estimated to have received around 75 times the dose given to the volunteers.

In another drug trial tragedy, TGN1412was given to volunteers who then suffered multiple organ failure as the drug triggered an uncontrollable immune response. One volunteer was hospitalized for three months, another had their fingers and toes amputated, and all are likely to suffer permanent damage to their immune systems and live with the danger of developing cancer and lupus.  The drug had been tested extensively in laboratory animals including in doses 500 times greater in monkeys with no drug-related adverse events.

Investment in animal research, predominantly with primates, has been wasteful and unsuccessful. A review has shown that not one of the 85+ candidate AIDS vaccines successfully tested in primates have been effective in human patients.

ADI has documented the suffering of primates for product safety tests at the notorious contract testing facility Huntingdon Life Science (now known as Envigo). Monkeys were strapped down to restrain them while substances were pumped directly into their stomachs, and they suffered a range of debilitating symptoms.

Researchers claim that the use of primates in brain research is ‘necessary’ but sophisticated neuroimaging techniques are available to study human behavior and brain function.Comparing data from human electrical brain activity with data obtained by experimenters using electrodes in restrained monkeys, Professor Furlong and his team at Aston University in the UKhave shown the same level of data can be obtained, directly relevant to human patients.


International Primate Daywas established by Animal Defenders International in 2005 to highlight the threats to and abuses of our closest relatives in the animal kingdom – apes and monkeys – from their use in research and entertainment, for meat and the pet trade.

Around 20,000 primates are imported into the US every year, from countries such as China, Vietnam and Mauritius. ADI USA revealed the hidden suffering of primates bred for research on the tropical Indian Ocean island of Mauritius. Biodia, one of the biggest suppliers of laboratory monkeys in the world, sends thousands to miserable deaths in the USA and worldwide. At this facility we filmed baby monkeys torn from their screaming mothers to be tattooed, pregnant monkeys manhandled and pinned down in terrifying routine procedures and screaming monkeys being swung by their tails.http://www.ad-international.org/animal_experiments/go.php?id=3503

Over 2,000 primates were imported into the UK from Asia and Africa last year. ADI infiltrated Nafovanny in Vietnam filming the macaque monkeys in small, filthy, broken cages – images the huge dealer of monkeys to the USA and UK denied were on their premises – until we proved otherwise. They once roamed free only to be torn from the trees and forced to live for years in these dismal prisons. http://www.ad-international.org/publications/go.php?id=1577 Monkeys filmed Huntingdon Life Sciences were supplied by Nafovanny.http://www.ad-international.org/publications/go.php?id=1576

Non-animal methods

  • There are many alternatives to the use of animals which are more reliable and are based on better science such as,human cell, tissue and organ culture, including 3D models containing different tissues providing a better representation of the actual situation in a living human;databases of known information, and sophisticated analytical techniques.
  • Advancednon-animal methods include the lung-on-a-chip, which mimics the movements of the breathing lung, providing provide low-cost alternatives for drug screening and toxicology tests
  • Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an analytical tool of unprecedented sensitivity. It can be used to study samples from human volunteers given ultra-low, harmless, doses of new drugs (called micro-dosing). Obtaining early data from humans can avoid the unnecessary exposure of volunteers in clinical trials to potentially toxic drugs.  Safe, relevant to the correct species. Emerging technologies like AMS have many advantages, including speeding the development process and improving safety.
  • Other cutting edge methods available to develop and test drugs include computer simulations and modelling, high throughput screening for rapid analysis of compounds for drug discovery, epidemiological studies of human disease, transmission, genetics and environmental factors; fMRI and other imaging techniques.

Species differences

The fundamental flaw of using animals for safety testing, and other forms of research, is species differences. With each species responding differently to substances, primate and other animal tests can never reliably predict potential human effects.

  • Macaque monkeys are frequently used in toxicology testing, but they have specific genes which are vital for drug metabolism (when a drug works through the body). These genes are not found in humans and this is just one of the reasons for differences in drug metabolism between monkeys and humans.
  • The action of drugs also varies; for example Aspirin causes birth defects in monkeys, but is widely used by pregnant women without the same effect.
  • A review showed that none of the 85+ candidate AIDS vaccines successfully tested in primates have been effective in human patients Horses, rats and mice cannot vomit.
  • Morphine drugs are a depressant in rats, dogs, hamsters and other species, but produce tremors and convulsions at comparable doses in mice and cats.
  • The breast cancer drug tamoxifen was designed as an oral contraceptive. It is in rats, but in women it has the opposite effect. It is now used in the treatment of breast cancer, despite causing cancer in rats in some studies.

Animal Defenders International (ADI):Los Angeles – London – Bogota

Ending the suffering of animals in captivity and protecting wild animals and their environments

Active worldwide to end the suffering of animals: animals in entertainment – film, television, advertising, circuses and sport or leisure; animals used for food or fur; protection of wildlife and the environment; trade in animals; zoos, pets, entertainment and laboratories. Funding and promotion of advanced scientific methods to replace the use of animals in research. ADI investigates, produces evidence and reports on the scientific, legal and economic issues for each case study, recommending solutions. Education and awareness to public, media and officials. Where ADI’s evidence has been a catalyst for change, we collaborate with governments to conduct large-scale seizures of wild animals in captivity and relocate them to forever homes – back to their natural habitat wherever possible.

www.ad-international.org

Bill will allow certified U.S. sanctuaries to rescue primates from abroad

Born Free USA Primate Sanctuary in Texas, home to 630 primates, would welcome primates from overseas who need lifetime care

Washington, DC (November 21, 2013) – Born Free USA, a global leader in animal welfare and wildlife conservation, applauds U.S. Representatives  Renee Ellmers (R-NC) and Peter DeFazio (D-OR) for introducing the Humane Care for Primates Act late yesterday, and urges the bill’s swift passage. The narrowly-crafted humane legislation seeks to correct an oversight in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) regulations governing the importation of nonhuman primates (NHPs), which currently prevent certified sanctuaries from saving animals at risk.

Current CDC regulations allow the importation of primates for “bona fide scientific, educational, or exhibition purposes,” which excludes sanctuaries and prevents needy primates overseas from being rescued by U.S. organizations. Meanwhile, zoos, circuses, universities, and other facilities are fundamentally unhampered in their acquisition of foreign primates.

According to Adam Roberts, Executive Vice President of Born Free USA, “While we always prefer for a wild animal to remain in its natural wild habitat, the reality is that this is not feasible for some primates. Those who have been forced to perform in circuses or held in captivity as pets are discarded when they are no longer ‘useful.’ They are physically and psychologically traumatized, and are likely to be placed in worse conditions or even put to death. If a U.S. sanctuary can rescue even one of these abused animals, then this legal change will be worthwhile.”

"Sanctuaries provide humane, lifetime care of primates, many of whom have been rescued from inhumane conditions," Ellmers said. "Compassionate care for deprived primates is very important to me and I am proud to have spearheaded this common-sense legislation to benefit animals in need."

This bill will require the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) to include certified animal sanctuaries within the categories for which primates may be imported in the CDC regulations. Furthermore, the Secretary will establish a certification process for sanctuaries to ensure that only high-quality sanctuaries can participate under this new rule, such as those like the Born Free USA Primate Sanctuary, which is accredited by the Global Federation of Animal Sanctuaries.

“I have championed wildlife protection issues for years, and it has become clear that the needs of neglected and abused primates abroad are the same as those here in the U.S.,” said DeFazio. “America is fortunate to have many accredited sanctuaries capable of making a difference for animals in need and we must ensure that this opportunity is open to them.”

Born Free USA knows first-hand the benefits of this change. The 186-acre Born Free USA Primate Sanctuary in Dilley, Texas is home to more than 600 primates, most rescued from deplorable circumstances. Roberts explains, “The conditions we have found many of these animals in is truly unimaginable and sickening – small cages in dark basements covered in their own feces. We are happy to be able to provide some of these victims with a large open place to live out their lives in freedom, with proper food and care, social interaction with other primates, and grass and trees for the first time in their lives.”

The Born Free USA Primate Sanctuary has been asked to take in primates from similarly abusive circumstances abroad, but has sadly been unable to do so due to the CDC regulations. In 2011, the Princess Alia Foundation’s New Hope Centre in Amman, Jordan asked Born Free USA to import and provide permanent refuge for three vervet monkeys and nine baboons confiscated from severely inhumane circumstances in zoos and private possession. That same year, the Colobus Trust in South Coast, Diani Beach, Kenya requested that Born Free USA take a yellow baboon who was kept as a pet for two years and had developed behavioral issues, for which he was facing impending euthanasia. Despite being fully equipped to accept and care for these primates for the rest of their lives, as well as the ability to assist a foreign sanctuary in need, the current regulation forced the Born Free USA Primate Sanctuary to deny these requests.

The changes this bill would provide are long overdue. Every day that sanctuaries are excluded from the regulations is another day that primates abroad are unable to experience compassionate care in the U.S. “Passage of the Humane Care for Primates Act is the humane decision,” Roberts emphasizes. "These animals are suffering every day and deserve a second chance at life in a true sanctuary.”

This legislation is supported by Born Free USA and The Humane Society of the United States, as well as a number of other organizations including the Global Federation of Animal Sanctuaries, Born Free Foundation (UK), Humane Society Legislative Fund, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Animal Legal Defense Fund, WildLifeRisk, Animals Asia Foundation, Earthtrust, Care for the Wild International, and Lilongwe Wildlife Trust.

Born Free USA is a nationally recognized leader in animal welfare and wildlife conservation. Through litigation, legislation, and public education, Born Free USA leads vital campaigns against animals in entertainment, exotic “pets,” trapping and fur, and the destructive international wildlife trade. Born Free USA brings to America the message of “compassionate conservation” -- the vision of the U.K.-based Born Free Foundation, established in 1984 by Bill Travers and Virginia McKenna, stars of the iconic film Born Free, along with their son Will Travers, now CEO of both organizations. Born Free’s mission is to end suffering of wild animals in captivity, conserve threatened and endangered species, and encourage compassionate conservation globally. More at www.bornfreeusa.org, at Twitter twitter.com/bornfreeusa, and one Facebook facebook.com/BornFreeUSA.

Bill will prohibit interstate commerce of monkeys, apes and other primates

Born Free USA Primate Sanctuary in Texas is home to more than 600 primates, many of whom were previously “pets”

Washington, DC, (July 31, 2013) – Born Free USA, a leader in animal welfare and wildlife conservation, applauds U.S. Representatives  Earl Blumenauer, D-Ore. and Michael G. Fitzpatrick, R-Pa., for introducing H.R. 2856, the Captive Primate Safety Act, and urges the bill’s swift passage. The bill seeks to prohibit interstate commerce of monkeys, apes and other primates for the exotic pet trade.

Adam Roberts, Executive Vice President of Born Free USA said, “The captive primate trade involves horrific animal suffering and serious threats to human safety. The animals often spend their lives confined in small cages as someone’s ‘pet,’ and face barbaric treatment such as  having their teeth extracted. We cannot allow animals to be mutilated in the name of companionship.  There is no excuse for keeping nonhuman primates as pets. They cannot be domesticated or tamed.  Their natural behavior is dangerous and they belong in the wild, not in someone’s home.”


About half of the states already prohibit private possession of some or all primate species as pets, but primates are easily obtained via the Internet and through out-of-state dealers and auctions, making a federal law necessary to support the efforts of state law enforcement and to promote global conservation efforts. Similar legislation has been passed in the House of Representatives previously.

Infant monkeys used for the pet trade are typically removed from their mothers, as babies are in high demand.  However people quickly discover that primates are extremely active, messy, destructive, and bite. Ultimately, weary of attacks on people and damage to the home, pet monkeys are often relegated to a life of isolation, loneliness, frustration and neglect. When people do decide to relinquish them, there are few places to turn.

The 186 acre Born Free USA Primate Sanctuary in Dilley Texas, is home to more than 600 primates, some of whom are former “pets”. Roberts explains, “The conditions we have found many of these animals in is truly unimaginable and sickening – small cages in dark basements covered in their own feces. We are happy to be able to provide some of these victims with a large open place to live out their lives in freedom, with proper food and care, social interaction with other primates, and grass and trees for the first time in their lives.”

Since 1990, more than 250 people – including dozens of children – have been injured by primates, and many more incidents go unreported. Primates also pose disease risks, including transmission of Ebola, tuberculosis and herpes-B.  The Born Free USA primate sanctuary exotic incident database www.bornfreeusa.org/database tracks primate incidents as well as other wildlife (lions, tigers, reptiles).  So far in 2013, a dozen incidents have been reported including dangerous escapes in Kansas, Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana and injuries to humans in Missouri (six year old boy bitten), and Texas (police officer bitten).

“Passage of the Captive Primate Safety Act cannot happen soon enough.  These animals are suffering every day and humans are in serious danger,” Roberts emphasizes.

Born Free USA is a nationally recognized leader in animal welfare and wildlife conservation. Through litigation, legislation, and public education, Born Free USA leads vital campaigns against animals in entertainment, exotic “pets,” trapping and fur, and the destructive international wildlife trade.  Born Free USA brings to America the message of “compassionate conservation” -- the vision of the U.K.-based Born Free Foundation, established in 1984 by Bill Travers and Virginia McKenna, stars of the iconic film Born Free, along with their son Will Travers, now CEO of both organizations. Born Free’s mission is to end suffering of wild animals in captivity, conserve threatened and endangered species, and encourage compassionate conservation globally.  More at www.bornfreeusa.org, at Twitter twitter.com/bornfreeusa, and one Facebook facebook.com/BornFreeUSA.

Washington, D.C., December 4, 2012 – The happy ending of a two year saga for 107 macaques and one baboon is finally here. In September, the last group of primates was successfully transported from their former home at the now-closed Wild Animal Orphanage (WAO) in San Antonio, Texas to their new home at the 186 acre Born Free USA Primate Sanctuary in Dilley Texas. Now, as the year comes to an end, Born Free USA reports that the animals are finally all adjusting and settling into their spacious digs – the place they will call home for the rest of their lives.

According to Tim Ajax, Director of the Born Free USA Primate Sanctuary, "It has been two months since the last group in the transfer arrived, and everyone has settled into their routine. Now cared for in large, open air enclosures the monkeys have made good use of the natural habitat and spend a good portion of each day climbing trees, exploring the ground for insects and tasty new plant shoots, and simply swaying with the treetops in the breeze. Some of these are behaviors they have never had a chance to engage in prior to coming here.”

Ajax adds, “Our new 42 stump-tailed macaque residents have all suffered for years from an allergy condition that caused hair loss and itching and we can see now that it was likely something in the environment at their previous residence since their coats are filling in nicely and there is a healthy sheen to them that was absent before. To see the social, psychological and physical health of these animals turn around, is truly amazing and uplifting.”

Among the 107 animals who arrived, are three babies. All are all doing wonderfully, reports Ajax. “The babies now have room to escape mom's protective clutches to do some safe roaming and appease their innate drive to explore, which is common to all species of primates.”

One of the groups of macaques with a baby is the rhesus group comprised of four males and eight females, including the infant named Reagan. Since they are a cohesive group and very protective of Reagan Ajax and his staff decided to try Chongo, a two year old ex-pet male rhesus, with them to see if he could start learning some monkey social skills, which unfortunately he had never had the chance to learn before. “We set him up in his own area and despite being very human-centered due to having been someone’s ‘pet,’ Chongo is now slowly making progress under the guidance from the adult monkeys. Several females visit him and quietly sit near him to provide reassurance. Transitioning from a confused ‘pet’ to a well-adjusted monkey can be a challenge but the experienced rhesus group is making it much easier for him.”

Adam Roberts, Executive Vice President of Born Free USA, says, “Challenges remain and we need ongoing financial support to provide the very best for them – and the over 500 other residents at the sanctuary -- for the next 20 years. We are thrilled with how readily the residents from the massive move have adapted to their new natural habitat and larger space. It has been an incredible rescue."

It all started on August 31, 2010, when Wild Animal Orphanage (WAO) announced the decision to dissolve its sanctuary “due to overpopulation, underfunding and inadequate housing for the animals.” According to the WAO board, they were in a “do or die situation” and they had to find placement for over 100 macaques, 55 tigers, 14 African lions, 16 chimpanzees, six wolf hybrids, and 20 baboons. Sanctuaries were found for all of these animals, in part through the leadership of the Global Federation of Animal Sanctuaries (GFAS), of which Born Free USA is a member.

In 2011, Born Free USA worked for months with WAO and the Texas Attorney General to find a way to help these animals. If Born Free USA did not step in, the large group of primates would likely have been euthanized. Since finalizing the details in November 2011, the sanctuary spent eight months building proper facilities and preparing for its new residents.

The move presented many challenges. In addition to the number of macaques involved, there were other highly complicated issues including: their sensitive social groupings -- 12 different animal groupings with troops as small as three and as large as 28; the age range -- from under one year old to some in their 30s; many physical health conditions from cataracts to skin and age-related bone issues; and a multitude of mental health issues many still suffer from as a result of their captivity prior to their life at WAO.

Roberts adds “Every day wild animals need to be rescued from ‘pet owners,’ laboratories, roadside zoos, and other abusive circumstances, but this time it is about a large sanctuary having to shut down completely -- a place where these animals were already once saved. Wild animals belong in the wild and these scenarios should never exist at all. Sanctuaries are filled to capacity, costly to run, and are the only aid we can give these animals.”

To learn more about the sanctuary, make a donation, or “adopt a primate” this holiday season visit www.bornfreeusa.org/sanctuary.

Born Free USA is a nationally recognized leader in animal welfare and wildlife conservation. Through litigation, legislation, and public education, Born Free USA leads vital campaigns against animals in entertainment, exotic “pets,” trapping and fur, and the destructive international wildlife trade. Born Free USA brings to America the message of “compassionate conservation” -- the vision of the U.K.-based Born Free Foundation, established in 1984 by Bill Travers and Virginia McKenna, stars of the iconic film Born Free, along with their son Will Travers, now CEO of both organizations. Born Free’s mission is to end suffering of wild animals in captivity, conserve threatened and endangered species, and encourage compassionate conservation globally. More at: www.bornfreeusa.org; twitter twitter.com/bornfreeusa; Facebook facebook.com/BornFreeUSA.

Rescued from a pharm lab and then living at a Sanctuary (World Animal Orphanage) that was shut down, these guys now have a permanent home at the Born Free USA Primate Sanctuary.

They are the first ten of over 100 arriving over the next few weeks! VIDEO HERE OF THEIR FIRST DAYS at our Sanctuary:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=71Td4Rt0v2Y&feature=player_embedded

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PgSuAWxw4HY&feature=player_embedded

Global campaign on Change.org calls on Air France, Air Canada and Vietnam Airlines to stop transporting “cruel cargo”


LONDON - The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection has launched an international campaign on Change.org to stop airlines transporting primates destined for research.

“Every year, tens of thousands of monkeys are traded around the world for the research industry,” said Sarah Kite, Director of Special Projects for the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection. “Airlines play a key role in this chain of suffering by shipping monkeys from breeding facilities in countries such as Vietnam, China, St Kitts and Mauritius to laboratories in the USA, Europe and Japan. BUAV is encouraging everyone to sign the Change.org petition in support of the Cargo Cruelty Campaign to urge airlines to take a compassionate stance and say no to cruel monkey shipments."

The Cargo Cruelty campaign was launched shortly after American Airlines joined the growing list of airlines that do not transport primates for the research industry. Air France, Air Canada and Vietnam Airlines are among a small number of airlines that continue to be involved in the primate trade.

The monkeys are bred in captivity or taken from the wild in countries such as Mauritius, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, the Philippines, Indonesia, Tanzania and Barbados. Breeding facilities are often overcrowded and plagued by animal abuse, while live-capture from the wild is stressful and dangerous to the animals who are taken from their family groups.

The animals are crowded into poorly ventilated crates, with little to no protection against temperature extremes, and loaded into the cargo area of commercial airplanes, where they can spend fifteen hours or more on a transcontinental journey. The monkeys don’t all survive the journey.

“Most people would be horrified to learn that they’re sharing a flight with animals destined for life in a laboratory,” said Stephanie Feldstein, Senior Organizer for Change.org, the world’s fastest growing social change platform. “These activists’ Change.org petition has not only helped raise awareness of the issue, but it gives travelers an opportunity to ask their airlines to do the right thing by refusing to support the cruel primate trade.”

Live signature totals from the campaign on Change.org:
http://www.change.org/petitions/tell-airlines-stop-transporting-nonhuman-primates-for-research

Additional background on the campaign:
www.buav.org/cargocruelty

Change.org is the world’s fastest-growing platform for social change — growing by more than 400,000 new members a month, and empowering millions of people to start, join, and win campaigns for social change in their community, city and country.

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