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Talkin' Pets News

June 27, 2020

Host - Jon Patch

Co-Host - Jay Stutz - Animal Planet - Good Dog U

Producer - Kayla Cavanaugh

Network Producer - Darian Sims

Social Media - Bob Page

Special Guests - Melissa Stewart author of NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC KIDS: ICK! Delightfully Disgusting Animal Dinners, Dwellings and Defenses will join Jon & Talkin' Pets 6/27/20 at 5pm ET to discuss & give away her new book

Joe Roetheli, founder of Pets Best Life & Yummy Combs will join Jon & Talkin' Pets 6/27/20 at 630pm ET to discuss and give away his company's first & new product

DR. KURT VENATOR, DVM – Chief Veterinary Officer, Purina will join Jon & Talkin' Pets 6/27/20 at 730pm ET to discuss VETERINARIAN REVEALS BREAKTHROUGH APPROACH TO MANAGING CAT ALLERGENS WHILE HOME

 

A new study failed to definitive relationship between grain-free and legume-rich diets and dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs.

A group of veterinarians, veterinary cardiologists and animal nutritionists from BSM Partners, a pet care research and consulting firm, examined more than 150 studies for the analysis.

“Additionally, the FDA’s reported cases of DCM include incomplete information, making it impossible to draw any sound conclusions from this data,” according to a press release from BSM.

The peer-reviewed article, which appears in the Journal of Animal Science, is an exhaustive literature review regarding the causes of DCM, and the first research resulting from BSM Partners’ long-term DCM research effort.

“We wanted to gain the best understanding of this issue, so we examined the results of more than 150 studies, which taken together did not support a link between grain-free and legume-rich diets, and DCM,” said Dr. Sydney McCauley, an animal nutritionist and the article’s lead author. “What the science does make clear is that DCM is largely an inherited disease.”

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration last year issued an update on its investigation into reports of DCM in pets eating certain commercial foods. The FDA included a list of “Dog Food Brands Named Most Frequently to DCM Cases Reported to FDA,” including many favorites of independent pet stores.

The new article details published research highlighting a number of other factors that could contribute to the presence of DCM. These include nutrient deficiencies, myocarditis, chronic tachycardia and hypothyroid disease.

“We believe that further research is needed in order to reach sound conclusions with respect to the relationship between diet and DCM,” said Dr. Eva Oxford, a veterinary cardiologist and an article coauthor. “This is why BSM Partners has initiated multiple original research projects that will shed additional light on this topic.”

BSM researchers also stated that while the FDA has referenced many reported cases of DCM in dogs eating grain-free or legume-rich diets, the majority of these cases contained incomplete information.

“For example, integral data such as the dog’s complete diet history, age, or the presence of concurrent conditions were often missing,” according to the press release. “Additionally, some of the reported cases were of dog breeds with a known genetic predisposition to DCM, which further confounds the claim of a dietary role.

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As evidence mounts for the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 — the virus that causes COVID-19 — infecting various animals, scientists at University College London say a global effort is needed to reduce the risk of the virus later returning to people.

In a comment piece for The Lancet Microbe, researchers write that if the virus becomes common in an animal population that lives near people, such as pets or livestock, there would be a risk that another outbreak could occur even if the virus is eradicated in people in the area.

The authors call for more research into which animals are susceptible to the virus, according to a press release from UCL. They suggest implementing surveillance programs to regularly test animals that could pose the highest risks of transmission.

Co-author Professor Joanne Santini of the UCL Structural and Molecular Biology said: “There is increasing evidence that some animals can catch SARS-CoV-2 from people, and might subsequently transmit it to other people – but we don’t know just how much of a risk this is, as it’s an area of study that has not yet been prioritised.

The authors write that the immense scale of the pandemic compounds the possibility of sufficient animals becoming “reservoirs” of the virus, which could be more likely than for past epidemics, such as the more contained SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2002-03.

Santini and co-author Professor Sarah Edwards, of UCL Science and Technology Studies, reviewed evidence from case studies, experiments testing infection in small groups of animals, as well as laboratory and modeling studies describing likely infection mechanisms. Modelling and lab studies suggest that SARS-CoV-2 could in theory be transmitted to numerous animals, based on findings that the spike protein on the virus attaches to host cells, using a protein that is found in many different species.

The research paper advises that, once scientists identify which animals could become infected, they then need to figure out whether they will become unwell or remain asymptomatic, and whether an infected individual is able to then transmit the virus to other animals or even to humans.

Notably, there have been recent cases in the Netherlands of farmed mink becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2, leading to two people catching the virus from these animals, in an outbreak that has led to thousands of mink being culled, according to the UCL release. The researchers say this example highlights not only the risk to human health, but also animal welfare concerns and potential loss of livelihoods in the agricultural sector.

Edwards said: “There’s an urgent need for widespread surveillance, by testing samples, preferably non-invasively, from large numbers of animals, particularly pets, livestock and wildlife that are in close proximity to human populations. More laboratory experiments on small numbers of animals are unlikely to give us the evidence needed to be confident that certain species are entirely safe, making major surveillance work the only real option here.

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The Australian brewery Young Henrys is working to fight climate change with an unusual ingredient—algae. The fermentation process that occurs during beer production releases massive amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), which can contribute to climate change. It takes a tree approximately two days to absorb the CO2 released from producing one six pack of beer. But, Young Henrys says their in-house cultivated algae not only absorb the CO2 released, they also produce as much oxygen as two and half acres of wilderness

Algae, a photosynthetic organism, are often seen as a nuisance because they can cause red tide—a toxic algal bloom —or infect local water sources. But, they are also up to five times more effective at absorbing carbon than trees, according to the technology company Hypergiant. 

Oscar McMahon, Young Henrys’ Co-Founder, sees their potential to curb beer production emissions. McMahon tells Food Tank, “This is a unique project and the focus is not to profit. It is to create something that we can then share with other people to adapt and use.”

Young Henrys signed onto this project with the University of Technology Sydney to reach carbon neutrality. To experiment with the effectiveness of its system, Young Henrys uses two bioreactors to cultivate algae. The first, a control, contains CO2, oxygen, and algae. The second contains the same three components but is connected to a fermentation tank. As the fermentation process produces additional CO2, the gas flows into the bioreactor. 

According to McMahon, at the end of each day, the control bioreactor consistently contains 50 percent less algae. This demonstrates that the algae in the experimental bioreactor successfully consume the harmful greenhouse gas, McMahon tells Food Tank. The hope is that this system can not only lower CO2 emissions from beer production, but ultimately convert it into oxygen. 

This specific project will continue for one more year, but McMahon hopes that algae will continue to lower Young Henrys carbon emissions as they find additional uses for the organism. 

Young Henrys is currently experimenting to incorporate algae into food, pharmaceuticals, and bioplastics. Other companies around the world are also developing energy bars, dietary supplements, protein shakes, and other food and drink items using algae. 

To scale up algae production and develop these new products, McMahon and Young Henrys are in consultation with engineering and beer industry groups to make this process scalable. McMahon says that both micro-breweries and national breweries will require the infrastructure and technology to easily incorporate algae in beer production.  

McMahon describes the beauty of algae and the microorganisms used in beer fermentation as “ying and yang organisms, similar things that live in big tanks of liquid that conduct opposite yet correcting jobs.”

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All four sectors of the U.S. pet industry — pet food, non-food pet supplies, veterinary services, and non-medical pet services — have been challenged by the coronavirus pandemic, whose economic downdraft may continue to be felt for years after the immediate medical crisis has passed. Even so, due to regulatory restrictions and social distancing, pet services rather than pet products are bearing the brunt of the blow, reports Packaged Facts in the recently updated market research study U.S. Pet Market Outlook, 2020-2021: The COVID-19 Impact.

Because it is non-discretionary and also the largest pet industry sector by sales, pet food is the usual suspect for preserving through the current crisis the pet market’s reputation for being recession-resistant, if not recession-proof. But less likely market heroes have also emerged, including non-food pet supplies and pets other than dogs and cats.

Two main factors account for robust sales of pet products despite the current economic chaos, according to Packaged Facts’ just-released update of its annual U.S. Pet Market Outlook report. First, an expected uptick in pet adoption swelled into a surge of pet acquisition, generating a sales boom for higher-ticket pet durables such as habitats, carriers, bedding, along with novelty and pampering purchases such as pet toys and accessories. Second, sales have spiked for at-home, do-it-yourself dog and cat grooming and oral care products, driven by the marooned customers of veterinary clinics or professional salons offering these services. With these developments, Packaged Facts expects pet product sales to notch up 8% from $55 billion in 2019 to nearly $59 billion in 2020.

Pet adoption has been notably high for “other” types especially pet reptiles and small mammals partly because of a multiple-pet-ownership trend. There’s no under-appreciation of dogs or cats afoot: among recent pet adopters, 90% have a pet dog, compared with 75% of pet owners overall, and 70% have a cat, compared with 56% of pet owners overall. This surge in pet adoption ties not simply to the recent stay-at-home period, but more specifically to having kids underfoot, given school closures and the disruption of public sports, recreation, and entertainment events—even play dates. While 8% of pet owners overall have adopted a pet because of the coronavirus pandemic, that rate notches up to 12% among those with children under age 18 at home.

Because pet ownership is a discretionary expense, multiple-pet households skew higher-income, adding fuel to the fire for the product and service premiumization trends that have long driven the U.S. pet market and drawn the attention of capital investors. COVID-19 impacts have amplified the already inordinate contribution of e-commerce to the pet market’s fortunes, compared with brick-and-mortar pet category retailers overall.

There is no certainty about how long the medical coronavirus crisis (and any resurgences) will last, how prolonged the job and wage losses will be, or how much the pandemic will alter the global market and political relationships on which U.S. economic growth relies. But few pet market observers will disagree that, in the years since 9/11, “pets as family” has given the U.S. pet industry a powerful and enduring boost.  And with Americans now facing uncertainty on an unprecedented scale and spending more time at home, the best bet is that “pets as family” will gain additional momentum during this period of coronavirus pandemic and beyond. ---------------

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Why do some greyhounds bleed and others clot excessively?

Sighthounds in general, and greyhounds in particular, have evolved over the past 6,000 to 7,000 years to follow their prey by sight. Hence, they have developed numerous physiologic and hematologic adaptations specific to the breeds.1

In retired racing greyhounds (RRGs), the packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell (RBC) count, and whole blood viscosity are higher, while the white blood cell count, neutrophil count, and platelet count are lower than in other dogs (reviewed in 2). The serum total protein, globulin, alpha-globulin, and beta-globulin concentrations are also lower than in non-greyhound dogs.3-5 Interestingly, platelet aggregation under high shear, as determined with the platelet function analyzer 100...

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A dopamine agonist used for inducing vomiting in canines has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) Center for Veterinary Medicine.

Clevor (ropinirole ophthalmic solution), which is administered by drops in a dog’s eye, has demonstrated a 95 percent effectiveness within 30 minutes of application when tested in a clinical field study. Eighty-six percent of the 100 dogs who were administered the treatment vomited after receiving one dose, while 14 percent needed a second dose 20 minutes after receiving the first.

The drug’s safety was demonstrated in one laboratory study in which 24 dogs were dosed twice daily for three days. Its effects, FDA says, are consistent with adverse reactions most commonly seen with drugs in the dopamine agonist class (e.g. vomiting, tremors, lethargy, increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure) and were resolved within six hours of administration.

Other drug-related effects observed were related to applying the drug to the eye, the agency says. These include eye redness, involuntary blinking or spasms of the eye lid, discharge, swelling, and corneal ulceration.

Clevor, which is available by prescription only and should be administered solely by veterinary professionals, is available in a 0.3-ml, prefilled single-dose dropper.

Human exposure to the drug may cause adverse reactions, including headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, decrease in blood pressure, and sleepiness, FDA says. People should seek medical attention if they accidentally come in contact with it.

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With as many as one in five adults affected by cat allergen sensitivities, many pet owners find it a struggle to snuggle with their favorite felines. Despite the watery eyes, sneezing and infinite attempts to remove dander from the home, however, 84% of cat owners said they would dismiss advice from their doctor to rehome their pet due to allergies. Twenty percent went so far as to say they would consider getting a new doctor instead.

This is according to a new survey conducted by Purina Pro Plan and the Human Animal Bond Research Institute (HABRI). The two groups surveyed 2000 cat owners in the U.S. to better understand the impact of cat allergens on all aspects of life in allergen-sensitive households.

Data collected from the survey reveal that:

  • 90% of cat owners feel their cats are members of the family.
  • 75% say the relationship with their cat is important to their own health and wellbeing.
  • 37% of households with sensitivities to cat allergens have changed their lifestyle to accommodate their cat.
  • 50% of owners with cat allergies wish they could spend more time playing with, snuggling and petting their cat.
  • Cat owners with allergen sensitivities do 41% more household cleaning than those without sensitivities.

Purina Pro Plan and HABRI believe the survey responses illustrate the need for better management methods. "Cat-owning households are trying a variety of ways to manage cat allergens, but ultimately 62% say their current methods are only somewhat effective or not effective at all," says Kurt Venator, DVM, PhD, chief veterinary officer at Purina. To aid in allergen relief, Purina Pro Plan recently launched Pro Plan LiveClear, the first cat food known to reduce the allergens in a cat’s hair and dander. In a published study, feeding Pro Plan LiveClear was shown to lower the allergens in cat hair and dander by an average of 47%, starting in the third week of daily feeding.

"Many people think that cat hair is the root of their problem," explains Ebenezer Satyaraj, PhD, an immunologist for Nestlé Purina Research and lead investigator on the research that led to the development of Pro Plan LiveClear, "but it's actually what's on [the hair]—the major cat allergen called Fel d 1, a protein that cats produce naturally in their saliva."

The key ingredient to the new line of cat kibble is a specific protein sourced from eggs. When cats eat LiveClear, the protein binds to Fel d 1 and safely neutralizes it in the cat's mouth. By reducing active Fel d 1 in the cat's saliva, the allergen that is transferred to the haircoat during grooming is also reduced. "Because scientists don't know exactly why cats produce Fel d 1, our goal was to neutralize it rather than inhibit its production," Dr. Venator says. A 6-month safety study showed that the egg-product coating is safe for cats to ingest. The action happens in the cat's mouth, but once swallowed, the ingredient is digested like any other protein. “The beauty of Pro Plan LiveClear is that it reduces cat allergens in cat hair and dander without impacting the physiology of the cat," he adds.

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Cats in 82 shelters across the U.S. and Canada are now enjoying safer living conditions, thanks to a new campaign by the Million Cat Challenge.

Dubbed Portalmania 2020, the movement has seen the installation of more than 2,400 “portals” in animal shelters. The upgrades connect two smaller cages, allowing for the separation of litter boxes from sleeping and eating areas.

According to the Million Cat Challenge, the portals help keep cats healthier and happier, making them more likely to be adopted quickly.

“Multiple studies have looked at the effect of poor housing on cats and have linked it to a high incidence of stress-related illness, particularly upper respiratory infections (URI),” says the challenge’s cofounder, Julie Levy, DVM, PhD, DACVIM, DABVP (shelter medicine practice). “Shelters frequently assume this condition is simply being spread from cat to cat like the flu, but what’s really happening is the cats are so stressed out they become ill.”

“This will be a game changer for us and for the cats we care for,” says Monica Wylie, executive director of Animal Friends of the Valleys in Riverside, Calif. “With this setup, we will be able to reduce the likelihood of stress-induced illness and euthanasia for our feline friends.”

Launched in 2014, the Million Cat Challenge is a shelter medicine initiative with the goal of saving the lives of one million shelter cats in North America within five years.

This target was met a full year ahead of schedule, allowing the program to shift its attention to ensure shelters are able to provide for the cats in their care.

“Happy cats equal happy homes,” says Genny Brown, executive director of the Humane Society of St. Joseph County in Mishawaka, Ind. “We are excited to give the most vulnerable population within our shelter the space they need to decompress and find forever homes.”

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The late famed farrier Burney Chapman long ago stressed the importance of treating white line disease (WLD) aggressively and considering the overall picture rather than just the pathology (disease or damage). The fungi involved in white line disease attack the stratum corneum’s (the outermost layer of the epidermis) intermediate layer—called the stratum medium—and digest the membrane responsible for securing the hoof wall to the sensitive areas deeper in the center of the hoof. The end result is that air and debris, instead of cartilage, line and separate the living tissue layers. Tapping the hoof wall in these cases creates a hollow sound, which is why some call WLD hollow hoof ­syndrome. This disease’s complex management and treatment aspects are probably best narrowed to three components: hoof care, diet, and environment. Ignoring any one of these can cause an otherwise good plan to fail.

A veterinarian and farrier team is best suited to address individual WLD cases, so we will cover only general principles here. First, the affected area must be opened and dried out with a topical product such as chlorine dioxide or Gentian violet. The degree of damage will dictate the amount of hoof wall debridement required, and care must be exercised not to damage healthy tissue or create more damage to the wall than is prudent—the horse still must bear weight comfortably. Treatment is aimed at killing fungi or fungal spores rather than trying to burn or harden sensitive tissue, as the latter actually slows the overall healing ­process. Second, the vet-farrier team should provide coffin bone support either by casting or shoeing and remove flares, seedy toe, and lamellar wedges (abnormal horn structure that develops within the lamellar region of the foot) to establish a proper weight-bearing structure for the horse. ­Finally—a step that’s often overlooked—your farrier should trim and shoe the horse to achieve a heel-first landing and proper weight bearing over the solar surface of the foot.

We know many horses that suffer from WLD are insulin resistant or have equine metabolic syndrome, and we know forage type, quality, and quantity directly influence insulin levels. So we must consider feed types and sources for affected horses. Insulin resistance, for instance, can cause blood vessels at the extremities to contract, potentially compromising blood flow to the foot’s tissues, so we’d focus on a low-calorie/low-carb diet. Horses with poor blood circulation in their feet require adequate exercise to stimulate blood flow, so turnout and pasture time are critical to overall success. Stalling rather than turning out in a paddock environment may be the single biggest factor compounding pathogen growth and damage associated with white line disease. Horses moving even in small paddocks are much better equipped to battle opportunistic hoof pathogens than those living stationary in a stall ­environment.

Hoof form and function has developed into an entire field of study and, as we gain knowledge pertaining to current practices, we have begun to rethink our current animal husbandry guidelines or practices. Researchers are examining how bedding types and footing (e.g., pea gravel vs. sand) affect foot growth and function. Results from one study showed that changes in confinement and footing materials were superior to current white line disease and ­laminitis treatment techniques. There is much more to white line disease than hoof wall separation or an ideal environment for fungi to become pathogenic. We need to realize that fungi are opportunistic and will continue to cause problems until we debride and treat the affected areas. While it’s still open for some debate, many researchers generally believe WLD is tied to the way we house and care for our horses. Volumes are being written on this subject, and the answers we seek will affect the future care and husbandry of our horses. ---------------------------------------

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Is it possible horses have color preferences? Does your palomino prefer purple, your Trakehner turquoise, your mare mauve? Can horse owners ever know?

Researchers recently explored color preferences through the use of different colored water buckets.1 Preference was determined based on how much water was consumed from galvanized steel buckets painted one of six colors: red, yellow, green, light green, light blue, and turquoise.

Six horses, three Thoroughbreds and three Haflingers, were maintained on the same diet throughout the study (1-2 kg of forage, 0.5-1 kg concentrate per 100 kg of body weight). They were turned out in paddocks each day for seven hours for the duration of the study period, which lasted 18 days. Six buckets, one in each of the six colors, were attached to the fence equidistant from one another, about two meters. Researchers shifted bucket positions each day so that every bucket was in every position along the fence.

Based on water intake, researchers found that horses preferred to drink from the turquoise buckets. Preferences for the colors, from highest to lowest, were turquoise, light blue, light green, green, yellow, and red. Horses chose the blues over other colors and light-toned colors over darker tones.

In light of these results, the researchers suggested that the use of turquoise or light blue buckets might encourage horses to drink.

Behavioral studies have demonstrated the ability of horses to discriminate colors. Like most of other nonprimate mammals, horses are thought to have dichromatic color vision. Humans have trichromatic color vision and can see the four basic hues of red, green, blue, and yellow as well as an array of intermediate hues, like orange (yellowish-red) or violet (reddish-blue), and thousands of shades.

Scientists believe that horses and other animals with dichromatic vision do not process intermediate hues, seeing only shades of blue and yellow.

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Veterinarians detect coronavirus in horses—which isn’t COVID-19 and isn’t transmissible to and from humans—by testing feces in the laboratory. If those tests are positive and the horse is showing classic clinical signs of fever, anorexia, and lethargy, you can safely assume he has coronavirus disease without further testing, according to new study results. Current diagnostic procedure calls for multiple additional tests to rule out other sources of disease that might be causing the clinical signs, said Macarena Sanz, DVM, MS, Dipl. ACVIM, PhD, assistant professor at Washington State University, in Pullman.

Even so, rapid and accurate diagnosis of equine coronavirus (ECoV) is necessary to maintain control over outbreaks of the “highly contagious” disease, she said. Horses can shed the virus for 14 days in their feces, and if other horses consume the virus in soiled bedding or pastures, for example, they could become infected. “It is important to isolate positive horses for a minimum of two weeks, with three weeks being preferred,” said Sanz.

ECoV frequently affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, leading to colitis (infection of the colon) and causing fever, anorexia (refusing to eat), and lethargy (fatigue) in horses. However, these are common clinical signs that could result from many infectious and noninfectious diseases, Sanz explained. The general rule of thumb has been only to confirm ECoV as the “culprit” as long as the ECoV test is positive and all other tests are negative.

In their study, Sanz and her fellow researchers tested 130 hospitalized horses—unrelated to any ECoV epidemic—for the presence of ECoV virus in their feces. They aimed to determine just how common viral presence is, because few studies have examined the prevalence in horses outside of the context of an outbreak. They ran fecal testing with both polymerase chain reaction (PCR, a DNA-based test) assays and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses on two fecal samples from each horse, spaced about 48 hours apart (sometimes less if the horses weren’t hospitalized for at least two days). Half the horses in the study had been admitted to the hospital for gastrointestinal issues, whereas the other half were admitted for anesthesia for imaging procedures involving the limbs (as a control group).

Coronaviruses are essentially microscopic strands of RNA (genetic material similar to DNA) wrapped in an envelope of proteins. So named because they look like they’re wearing crowns when viewed under a microscope.   An 8-year-old Miniature Horse gelding—had a positive PCR test for ECoV, Sanz said. The horse had been admitted to the hospital after six days of fever and anorexia and was later confirmed to have colitis. At the time of admission, the horse’s PCR test for ECoV was negative, she explained. It was the second test—at 48 hours—that showed a positive result. He showed improvements within a week of testing and was discharged after a 20-day hospital stay.

The fact that the general presence of ECoV in horses’ feces is so infrequent suggests that when it is present, veterinarians should take it seriously and consider it a likely cause of the horse’s fever, anorexia, and lethargy, Sanz said. “Because this virus is very contagious, it is important to have ECoV in the list of differential diagnosis when dealing with horses with unspecific clinical signs, especially if multiple horses are affected.”

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ALONG WITH HOLISTIC veterinary practices, independent pet stores are on the front line of alternative and complementary healthcare. Our customers trust and value our opinions and those of our staff. These are relationships we hold dear and want to nurture further — after all, most of us have spent hundreds of hours researching the products on our shelves.

In each state’s Veterinary Practice Act, certain words have legal meaning. If anyone but a licensed practitioner uses these words, they are considered to be practicing veterinary medicine without a license, which can result in fines and jail time. I myself had a visit from the Rhode Island State Veterinarian because of an anonymous complaint. Thankfully, I was discussing products as I will describe here, and nothing more came from it — but let me tell you, that slight brush with the law made me even more carefully select the words I (and my employees) use with customers.

You may not be surprised by many of the words reserved for licensed veterinarians, such as “cure,” “treat,” “diagnose” and “prescribe.” But did you know that using the word “disease” is a no-no. In fact, even naming a commonly known disease such as arthritis can be construed as giving a medical diagnosis, and doing so should be avoided if you want to stay within the lines of the law. So how then do we describe and sell the purported benefits of CBD to our customers?

It’s actually quite simple: You take the selling out of it and instead educate and inform your customer as to how it may support the body and the bodily systems.

For example:

  • Instead of saying “Helps with stress or decreases anxiety,” say “May help support a healthy mental state.”
  • Instead of saying “Decreases inflammation or is anti-inflammatory,” say “May support a healthy immune system.”
  • Instead of saying “Helps reduce pain and nerve-related issues,” say “May support a healthy nervous system.”

These are just a few examples, but you can see where I’m going. This type of language still conveys the benefits of the CBD, but it keeps you in the role of teacher and away from that of prescriber. You can use this language along with your own anecdotal stories about how it has promoted a state of calmness and supported a relaxed mind in your own dog. Also encourage customers to do additional research on their own. And if you ever don’t feel comfortable answering a question, the best practice is to direct them to the brand manufacturer.

Most of us have experienced firsthand how beneficial CBD — and other supplements, for that matter — can be. Now you can successfully and safely sell them.

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The Arctic is feverish and on fire—at least parts of it are. And that's got scientists worried about what it means for the rest of the world.

The thermometer hit a likely record of 38 degrees Celsius (100.4 degrees Fahrenheit) in the Russian Arctic town of Verkhoyansk last Saturday, a temperature that would be a fever for a person—but this is Siberia, known for being frozen. The catastrophic oil spill from a collapsed storage tank last month near the Arctic city of Norilsk was partly blamed on melting permafrost. In 2011, part of a residential building in Yakutsk, the biggest city in the Sakha Republic, collapsed due to thawing and subsidence of the ground.

Last August, more than 4 million hectares of forests in Siberia were on fire, according to Greenpeace. This year the fires have already started raging much earlier than the usual start in July, said Vladimir Chuprov, director of the project department at Greenpeace Russia.

Persistently warm weather, especially if coupled with wildfires, causes permafrost to thaw faster, which in turn exacerbates global warming by releasing large amounts of methane, a potent greenhouse gas that's 28 times stronger than carbon dioxide, said Katey Walter Anthony, a University of Alaska Fairbanks expert on methane release from frozen Arctic soil.

"Methane escaping from permafrost thaw sites enters the atmosphere and circulates around the globe," she said. "Methane that originates in the Arctic does not stay in the Arctic. It has global ramifications." And what happens in the Arctic can even warp the weather in the United States and Europe.

In the summer, the unusual warming lessens the temperature and pressure difference between the Arctic and lower latitudes where more people live, said Judah Cohen, a winter weather expert at Atmospheric Environmental Research, a commercial firm outside Boston.  That seems to weaken and sometimes even stall the jet stream, meaning weather systems such as those bringing extreme heat or rain can stay parked over places for days on end, Cohen said.

According to meteorologists at the Russian weather agency Rosgidrome t, a combination of factors—such as a high pressure system with a clear sky and the sun being very high, extremely long daylight hours and short warm nights—have contributed to the Siberian temperature spike.

"The ground surface heats up intensively. .… The nights are very warm, the air doesn't have time to cool and continues to heat up for several days," said Marina Makarova, chief meteorologist at Rosgidromet.  Scientists agree that the spike is indicative of a much bigger global warming trend.

"The key point is that the climate is changing and global temperatures are warming," said Freja Vamborg, senior scientist at the Copernicus Climate Change Service in the U.K. "We will be breaking more and more records as we go." "What is clear is that the warming Arctic adds fuel to the warming of the whole planet," said Waleed Abdalati, a former NASA chief scientist who is now at the University of Colorado.

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